Sulalatus Salatin (Genealogy of Kings) 1
It happened on a time that Raja Iskandar, the son of Raja Darab of Rum,?of the race of Makaduniah, the name of?whose empire was Zulkarnain, wished to?see the rising of the sun; and with this?view he reached the confines of the land of?Hind. There was a raja in Hindostan,?named Raja Kida Hindi, who was very?powerful, and whose empire extended over?the half of Hindustan, and immediately on?the approach of Raja Iskandar, he sent his prime minister to collect his forces, and?marched out to meet him. The armies?engaged, and a fine battle ensued, as is?recorded fully in the history of Raja Iskandar. In fine, Raja Kida Hindi was defeated and taken prisoner, and embraced?the true faith according to the law of the?prophet Ibrahim, the friend of God; after?which he was sent back to his own country.?This Raja Kida Hindi had a daughter extremely beautiful and handsome, whose face glittered and shone like the sun, and?whose understanding and qualities were?equally remarkable, and she was named?Shaherul Beriah. After sending his head?minister, Perdana Mantri, to consult with the prophet Khizei, who was the minister?of Raja Iskandar, he married his daughter?to Raja Iskandar, who agreed to pay as her?dowry 300,000 denars of gold, and carried?her with him on his visit to the rising sun,?after tarrying ten days in honour of the ceremony. On his return, however, her father requested her to remain some time?with him, to which Raja Iskandar agreed,?and took his departure.?It is stated by the relater of this story,?that the Princess Shaherul Beriah, the?daughter of Raja Kida Hindi, became pregnant by Raja Iskandar, but Raja?Iskandar?was unacquainted with this circumstance,?nor was the princess acquainted with it herself, till a month after her return to her?father. She at last informed her father that a cessation of her courses had taken?place for two months, at which he was?greatly delighted, considering that her pregnancy was by Raja Iskandar, and therefore?treated her with all requisite attention.?At the expiration of the months, the princess was safely delivered of a son, whom?Raja Kida Hindi named Araston Shah, and?who in every respect was the perfect picture?of his father Raja Iskandar Zulkarnain.
Raja Araston Shah married the daughter of?the king of Turkestan, by whom he had a son named Raja Aftas. After the space of forty-five years, Raja Iskandar?returned to Makedonia, and Raja?Kida Hindi died, and left as his successor?on the throne, Raja Araston Shah, who?reigned 350 years, and then died. He?was succeeded on the throne by his son Raja?Aftas, who reigned 120 years, and then?died. He was succeeded by Ascayinat, who?reigned three years and died. He was succeeded by Casidas, who reigned twelve years, and died. He was succeeded by?Amatubusu, who reigned thirteen years.?He was succeeded by Raja Zamzeyus, who?reigned seven years, and died. He was?“succeeded by Kharus Cainat, who reigned?thirty years, and died. He was succeeded?by Raja Arhat Sacayinat. After his death,?he was succeeded by Raja Cudarzuguhan the?son of Raja Amatubusu. After him reigned?Raja Nicabus, who reigned forty years, and?died. After him reigned Raja Ardasir?Migan, who married the daughter of Raja?Nashirwan Adel, sovereign of the east and?west, by whom he had a son, named Raja?Derma Unus. After him succeeded on the?throne, his grandson Tarsi Bardaras, the?son of Raja Zamrut, who was the son of?Shah Tarsi Narsi, who was the son of Raja?Derma Unus, who was the son of Ardasir?Babegan, who was the son of Raja Cuduri?Gudurz Zuguhan, who was the son of Raja?Amatubusu, who was the son of Raja Sabur,?who was the son of Raja Aftas, who was the?son of Raja Araston Shah, who was the son?of Iskandar Zulkarnain.
Raja Narsi Barderas married the daughter of Raja Salan, the king of Amdan Nayara,?who, it is asserted by some, was the grandson of Raja Nashirwan Adel, the son of?Raja Kobad Shah Shahriar, who was king of?the east and west. This Raja Sulan was the?mightiest prince of the lands of Hind and?Sind, and of all the rajas under the wind?(i.e. towards the west, the wind being?supposed to rise with the sun). By the?princess his daughter, Raja Narsi had three?sons; 1. Raja Heiran, who reigned in the?country of Hindustan. 2. Raja Suran,?whom Raja Sulan took and installed in his?own place. 3. Raja Panden, who reigned in?Turkestan. After a short time Raja Sulan?died, and his grandson Raja Suran reigned in his place in Amdan Nagara, with still?greater authority than his predecessor, and?all the rajas of the east and west acknowledged his allegiance, excepting the land of?China, which was not subject to him.?Then Raja Suran Padshah formed the design of subjugating China, and for this?purpose his men at arms, and the kings dependent on him, assembled from every?quarter with their hosts, to the number of?one thousand and two lacs. With this prodigious host, he advanced against China,?and in his course, the forests were converted into open plains; the earth shook,?and the hills moved; the lofty grounds?became level, and the rocks flew off in?shivers, and the large rivers were dried up?to the mud. Two months they marched?on without delay, and the darkest night?was illuminated by the light of their armour like the lustre of the full moon;?and the noise of the thunder could not?be heard for the loud noise of the champions and warriors, mixed with the cries of?horses and elephants. Every country which?Raja Suran approached, he subdued and reduced under his subjection, till at last he?approached the country of Gangga Nagara,?the king of which was named Ganggi Shah?Juana, which city is situated on a hill of?very steep approach in front, but of easy?access in the rear. Its fort was situated on?the banks of the river Dinding, in the vicinity of Perak. When Raja Ganggi Shah?Juana heard of the approach of Raja Suran,?he summoned all his vassals, and ordered?the gates of his fortresses to be shut, and stationed his guards for their protection.?He also directed his moats to be filled with water. The host of Raja Suran quickly?surrounded his fortresses, and attacked?them sharply, but were vigorously repulsed. On this, Raja Suran mounted?his huge elephant, and approached the?gate of the fortress, notwithstanding the?showers of spears and arrows with which he?was assailed; he smote the gate with his?chacra, and it immediately tumbled down,?while the king entered the fort with all his?champions. When Raja Ganggi Shah Juana?saw Raja Suran, he seized his bow and?smote the elephant of Raja Suran on?the forehead, which instantly fell down.?Raja Suran quickly sprung up and drew his sword, and smote off the head of Raja Ganggi?Shah Juana. After the death of the king,?all his subjects submitted to Raja Suran,?who married Putri Gangga, the beautiful sister of Raja Ganggi Shah Juana. From?Gangga Nagara, Raja Suran advanced to?the country of Glang Kiu, which in former?times was a great country, possessing a fort of blackstone up the river Johor. In the Siamese language, this word signifies the place of the emerald (Khlang Khiaw) but by persons ignorant of this language, it is usually termed Glang Kiu. The name of the king?of this country, was Raja Chulan, who was?superior to all the rajas of the countries lying under the wind.
As soon as he heard of Raja Suran’s?approach, he summoned all his vassals, and?marched out to meet him with a host, like?the sea rough with waves, and elephants and?horses like the islands in the sea, and?standards like a forest, and armour plated?in scales, and the feathering of the spears?like the Bunga lalang. After having?marched about four times as far as the eye?can reach, they arrived at a river; when he?saw the host of Raja Suran extending like?a forest, on which he said, in the Siamese?language, “call them,” and the river still?retains the name of Panggil, which in Malay has this signification. When the Siamese troops engaged with the troops of?Kling, a dreadful noise arose, the elephants rushed against the elephants, and?the horses bit the horses, and clouds of arrows flew across each other, and spears?pierced spears, and lances encountered lances, and swordsmen encountered swords?men, and the descent of weapons was like?the rapid fall of rain, and the noise of the?thunder would have passed unheard in the?bat, from the shouts of the batants,?and the ringing of weapons. The dust?ascended to the heavens, and the brightness?of the day was darkened like an eclipse.?The batants were all so mingled and?blended, that they could not be distinguished, amokas madly encountered amokas,?many stabbed their own friends, and many?were stabbed by their own partizans, till?multitudes were slain on both sides, and?also many elephants and horses. Much?was the blood which was shed upon the?earth, till at last it allayed the clouds of?dust, and the field of bat was light, and?the fierce amokas became visible, none of?whom on either side would fly. Then Raja?Chulan advanced his elephant, and broke?into the ranks of Raja Suran, which exceeded all power of calculation. Wherever he?approached the corpses swelled in heaps?over the ground, till great numbers of the?Kling troops perished, and unable to?maintain their ground, they began to give?way. He was observed by Raja Suran, who?hurried forward to meet him. Raja Suran?was mounted on a lofty elephant eleven cubits in height, but the elephant of Raja?Chulan was very courageous, and they?fiercely rushed together, roaring like the?thunder, and the clash of their tusks was?like the stroke of the thunderbolt. Neither of the elephants could conquer the?other. Raja Chulan stood on his elephant,?brandishing his spear which he aimed at?Raja Suran; he missed him, but pierced his?elephant in the fore flank, from side to?side ; Raja Suran rapidly discharged an arrow at Raja Chulan, which struck him on?the breast, and pierced him to the back, and Raja Chulan fell down dead on his elephant.?When the host of Raja Chulan saw their?master dead, they quickly took to flight, and?were hotly pursued by the Kling forces, who entered with them into the fortress of?Glang-kiu. Raja Chulan left a daughter?of great beauty named Putri Onang-kiu,?whom Raja Suran took to wife, and carrying?her with him, advanced to Tamsak. Then,?it was reported in the land of China, that?Raja Suran was advancing against them with?an innumerable army, and had arrived at?the country of Tamsak. The king of China?was alarmed at hearing this intelligence,?and said to his mantris and chieftains, “If?Kling Raja approach, the country will be?inevitably ruined; what method do you?advise to prevent his approach?” Then,?a sagacious mantri of China said, “Lord?of the world, your slave will fall on a device.” The king of China desired him to?do so. Then this mantri ordered a vessel?(pilu, i. e. the Chinese mode of pronouncing prow), to beprepared, filled full of fine?needles, but covered with rust; and planted in it trees of the Casamak and Bidara?(Bér) plants; and he selected a party of?old and toothless people, and ordered them?on board, and directed them to sail to?Tamsak. The prow set sail, and arrived at?Tamsak in the course of a short time.?The news was brought to Raja Suran, that
a prow had arrived from China, who sent?persons to enquire of the mariners how?far it was to China. These persons accordingly went, and enquired of the Chinese, who replied, “When we set sail from?the land of China, we were all young, about?twelve years of age, or so, and we planted?the seeds of these trees; but now, we have?grown old and lost our teeth, and the seeds?that we planted have bee trees, which?bore fruit before our arrival here.” Then,?they took out some of the rusty needles,?and showed them, saying, “When we left the land of China, these bars of iron were?thick as your arm; but now they have?grown thus small by the corrosion of rust.?We know not the number of years we have?been on our journey; but, you may judge?of them from the circumstances we mention.” When the Klings heard this account, they quickly returned, and informed?Raja Suran. “If the account of these Chinese be true,” said Raja Suran, “the land?of China must be at an immense distance;?when shall we ever arrive at it? – If this?is the case, we had better return.” All the champions assented to this idea.
Then Raja Suran, considering that he had?now bee acquainted with the contents of the land, wished to acquire information concerning the nature of the sea. For this purpose, he ordered a chest of glass, with a lock?in the inside, and fixed it to a chain of gold.?Then, shutting himself up in this chest, he?caused himself to be let down into the sea,?to see the wonders of God Almighty’s creation. At last, the chest reached a land,?denominated Zeya, when Raja Suran came?forth from the chest, and walked about to?see the wonders of the place. He saw a?country of great extent, into which he entered, and saw a people named Barsam, so?numerous, that God alone could know their?numbers. This people were the one half?infidels, and the other true believers. When?they saw Raja Suran, they were greatly astonished and surprised at his dress, and?carried him before their king, who was?named Aktab-al-Arz, who enquired of those?who brought him, “Whence is this man?”?And they replied, “He is a new er.”?— “Whence is he e?” said the king.?“That,” said they, “none of us know.”?Then Raja Aktab-al-Arz asked Raja Suran,?“Whence are you, and whence have you?e?” – “I e from the world,” said?Raja Suran ; “and your servant is king of?the whole race of mankind; and my name?is Raja Suran.” The king was greatly astonished at this account, and asked if there?was any other world than his own. “Yes, there is,” said Raja Suran ; “ and a very?great one, full of various forms.” The king?was still more astonished, saying, “Almighty God, can this be possible?’’ He?then seated Raja Suran on his own throne.?This Raja Aktab-al-Arz had a daughter?named Putri Mahtab-al-Bahri. This lady?was extremely handsome, and her father?gave her in marriage to Raja Suran, to whom she bore three sons. The king?was for some time much delighted with this?adventure; but at last he began to reflect?what advantage it was for him to stay so?long below the earth, and how he should be?able to carry his three sons with him. He begged, however, his father-in-law to think?of some method of conveying him to the upper world, as it would be of great disadvantage to cut off the line of Iskandar Zulkarnain. His father-in-law assented to the propriety of this observation and furnished him?with a sea-horse named Sambrani, which?could fly through the air as well as swim in the water. Raja Suran mounted this steed?amid the lamentations of his spouse, the Princess; the flying steed quickly cleared?the nether atmosphere, and having reached the upper ocean, it rapidly traversed it; and?the subjects of Raja Suran quickly perceived him. The mantri of Raja Suran perceiving?on what sort of animal his master was mounted, quickly caused a mare to be?brought to the shore of the sea. On perceiving the mare, the steed Sambrani?quickly came to the shore, and as quickly?did Raja Suran dismount from him, on which?he immediately returned to the sea. Raja?Suran then called a man of science and an?artificer, and ordered the account of his descent into the sea to be recorded, and a?monument to be formed which might serve?for the information of posterity, to the day?of judgment. The history of this adventure?was accordingly posed, and inscribed on?a stone in the Hindustani language. This?stone being adorned by gold and silver, was?left as a monument, and the king said that?this would be found by one of his descendants?who should reduce all the kings of the countries under the wind. Then Raja Suran returned to the land of Kling, and after his?arrival he founded a city of great size, with?a fort of black stone, with a wall of seven?fathoms in both height and thickness, and?so skilfully joined that no interstices remained between the stones, but seemed all?of molten metal. Its gates were of steel?adorned with gold and gems. Within its?circumference are contained seven hills, and?in the centre a lake like a sea, and so large?that if an elephant be standing on the one?shore he will not be visible on the other;?and this lake contained every species of fish,?and in the middle was an island of considerable height, on which the mists continually?rested. The island was planted with trees,?flowers, and all kinds of fruits, and whenever Raja Suran wished to divert himself, he?used to frequent it. On the shore of this lake?was a large forest, stocked with all sorts of?wild beasts, and whenever Raja Suran wished?to hunt, he mounted his elephant and proceeded to this forest. The name of this city?was Bijnagar, which at the present time is a?city in the land of Kling. Such is the account of Raja Suran, but if all his adventures?were to be related, they would rival those of Hamdah.
In process of time Raja Suran had, by the?lady Putri Onang-kiu, the daughter of Raja?Chulan, a daughter of exquisite and unrivalled beauty, named Chanduwani Wasias. By the lady Putri Gangga he had three sons,?one of them was named Bichitram Shah,?another Palidutani, and the third, Nilumanam. His daughter, Chanduwani Wasias,?was asked in marriage by Raja Hiran, for?his son Raja Chulan; Raja Suran placed his?son, Palidutani, in the government of Amdan?Nagara; and his son, Nilumamam, in the country of Chandukani. On his eldest son,?Bichitram Shah, he only conferred a territory of small extent; and the young prince being displeased at this measure, resolved?to abandon his country. Bichitram Shah accordingly embarked, with twenty vessels fitted out with all the apparatus of war, determining to conquer all the maritime districts. After conquering several scores of countries, he at last reached the sea denominated Silbou, where, being caught in a dreadful hurricane, his fleet was dispersed, and the half of them returned to the country of Chandukani, but the fate of the other half is unknown. The adventures of this prince were very numerous, but here they are only alluded to briefly.